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Slope stability reference guide for national forests in the United States

Hall, D.E.; Long, M.T.; Remboldt, M.D., editors; Prellwitz, R.W.; Koler, T.E.; Steward, J.E., coordinators. 1994. Slope Stability Reference Guide for National Forests in the United States. Publication EM-7170-13. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Engineering Staff. 3 volumes, 1091 p.

Keywords: slope stability

Links: pdf Volume I [8.9 MB graphic PDF] | Volume II [8.5 MB graphic PDF] | Volume III [8.0 MB graphic PDF]

Abstract: The Slope Stability Reference Guide for National Forests in the United States, 1,091 pages in three volumes, covers stability of both soil and rock slopes. It was written by 23 authors, who are present or former Forest Service engineering geologists, geotechnical engineers and geomorphologists, as an attempt to capture the technical advancements made by the Forest Service over the past 25 years in predicting and analyzing slope behavior in mountainous terrain.

Volume I

  • Section 0.
    • Dedication to Rod Prellwitz
    • Acknowledgments
    • Abstract
  • Section 1. Introduction and Suggestions for Use
    • Section 1A. Guide to the Guide
    • Section 1B. Introduction to the Three-Level Stability Analysis Concept
    • Section 1 References
    • Appendix 1.1. Introduction to the Three-Level Stability Analysis Concept
  • Section 2. Initial Slope Stability Assessment in Resource Planning
    • Section 2A. Introduction
    • Section 2B. Climatic, Geologic, and Hydrologic Influences on Slope Stability
    • Section 2C. Basin-Scale Assessment of Geologic Hazards
    • Section 2D. Considerations for Rock Slope Stability in Reconnaissance-Level Projects
    • Section 2E. Cumulative Effects
    • Section 2F. Watershed Analysis Case Histories
    • Section 2 References
    • Appendix 2.1. Basin Study Checklist
    • Appendix 2.2. LISA Problem Example
    • Appendix 2.3. Geologic Information Management
  • Section 3. Site Investigation
    • Section 3A. Problem Definition and Application of the Scientific Method
    • Section 3B. Soil and Rock Classification for Engineering Analysis and Design
    • Section 3C. Surface Investigations
    • Section 3D. Subsurface Investigation
    • Section 3E. Geotechnical Monitoring
    • Section 3 References
    • Appendix 3.1. Review of the Scientific Method
    • Appendix 3.2. Procedures for Determining Unified Soil Classification
    • Appendix 3.3. ODOT Rock Classification System
    • Appendix 3.4. Unified Rock Classification System
    • Appendix 3.5. The Field-Developed Cross-Sextion
    • Appendix 3.6. Geotechnical Exploration—Drive Probe Method
Volume II
  • Section 4. Parameters for Stability Analysis
    • Section 4A. Fundamental Stress-Strain Relationships
    • Section 4B. Soil Weight/Volume Relationships
    • Section 4C. Strength and Behavior of Soil
    • Section 4D. Strength and Behavior of Rock
    • Section 4E. Ground Water Fundamentals
    • Section 4F. Root Strength and Tree Surcharge
    • Section 4 References
  • Section 5. Slope Stability Analysis
    • Section 5A. Fundamentals and Derivations
    • Section 5B. Soil Slopes—Level I Analysis—Natural Slopes
    • Section 5C. Soil Slopes—Level II Analysis—Constructed Slopes
    • Section 5D. Soil Slopes—Transition From Deterministic to Probabilistic Analyses
    • Section 5E. Soil Slopes—Level I and II Probabilistic Analyses
    • Section 5F. Soil Slopes—Level III Stability Analysis
    • Section 5G. Soil Slopes—Sample Problem Including All Three Levels of Analysis
    • Section 5H. Rock Slopes—Fundamentals and Sample Problems
    • Section 5 References
Volume III
  • Section 6. Stabilization
    • Section 6A. Stabilization Considerations
    • Section 6B. Modification of Geometry
    • Section 6C. Surface and Subsurface Drainage
    • Section 6D. Horizontal Drains
    • Section 6E. Buttresses
    • Section 6F. Soil Slope Stabilization—Reinforced Fills
    • Section 6G. Shear Trenches
    • Section 6H. Rock Slope Stabilization
    • Section 6I. Comparison of Alternatives and Decision Analysis
    • Section 6J. Construction Control
    • Section 6K. Post-Construction Monitoring of the Technical Structures and Projects
    • Section 6 References
    • Appendix 6.1. Horizontal Drains Design Example—Camp Five Slide
    • Appendix 6.2. Shear Trench Sample Problem
    • Appendix 6.3. Rock Slope Stabilization—System Specifications Examples
    • Appendix 6.4. Powder Creek SSI Demonstration Problem
    • Appendix 6.5. Probability and Statistics Refresher
    • Appendix 6.6. Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Geocomposite Drain Systems for Use on Low-Volume Roads
    • Appendix 6.7. Soil Nailing


    Volume I contains discussions on initial slope stability assessments, field investigation techniques, and case histories. [338 p]

    Volume II presents fundamental soil and rock mechanics and a thorough review of ground water fundamentals and principles as they relate to effective stress in stability analysis. Volume II also contains a section on the theory and derivations of limiting equilibrium analysis and the various methods used. Sample problems of soil and rock slope stability case histories are also included with solutions provided for both natural and constructed slopes using both probabilistic and deterministic methods. [408 p]

    Volume III contains a comprehensive evaluation of stabilization alternatives, decision analyses, and construction control methods used by the Forest Service, with step-by-step design examples and specifications; these include: cutoff trenches; horizontal drains; geocomposite drains; retaining structures; shear keys; reinforced fills; rock bolts and dowels; shotcrete; rockfall screening; and soil nailing. [380 p]

    Due to its wide coverage of the topic, the Slope Stability Guide is a useful reference for earth scientists and engineers at all technical skill levels.

    Moscow FSL publication no. 1994e